GL E36 steel Equivalent

thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG

Manufacturer(s) approved by this certificate is/are accepted to deliver according to DNV GL,DNV and GL rules.Materials to be applied to DNV GL classed object shall fulfill the material requirements in the applicable DNV GL class rules.Issued at Hamburg on 2019-10-22 This Certificate is valid until 2022-04-30.DNV GL local station Essensell GL E36 steel,GL E36 ship plate,GL E36 shipbuilding Detailed GL E36 steel Description.GL E36 SHIP plate thickness:5-120mm width:1500-4020mm length:3000-18000mm standard:9 countries certifications.GL E36 shipbuiling steelSteel grades,Properties and Global StandardsSteel and steel is introduced,including chemical composition and mechanical performance data,each steel grade property.

Steel Grade Equivalents Table Universal Steel America

Carbon Steel Grade Equivalents If you are not able to find the grade of steel you are looking for,please contact us at 281-645-0177.We would love to help you find what you are looking for.Steel Grade Equivalency TableSteel Import / Export Statistics Steel Import / Export Statistics.Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs.If you are interested in the past and current steel trade volumes in various steel products around the globe,this section is just for you.Events Events Events .Events EventsSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.

Rules for Classification and Construction I Ship - DNV GL

(Germanischer Lloyd SE has on 29 January 2014 changed its name to DNV GL SE.Any references in this Steel grade required by GL Permitted VL grade as per the DNV GL Rules for replacement of GL grade 36 GL-E36 BCA VL E36 BCA GL-E36 BCACOD VL E36 BCACOD GL-E36 COD VL E36 COD 40 GL-E40 BCA VL E40 BCA GL-E40 BCACOD VL E40 BCACOD GL-E40 COD VL Provide:VLE36/VL E36/VL Grade E36/DNVGL-E36/DNVGL E36VLE36/VL E36/VL Grade E36/DNVGL-E36/DNVGL E36-DNV-GL-E36-shipbuilding-offshore-steel-sheets|steel-plate is mainly used to Ship Project and Ocean Offshore Structural Project.Previous123456NextVideos of GL E36 steel Equivalent Watch video on Vimeo1:55Breitling Windrider Blackbird A4436010 / BB71-379A Men's Luxury Watch Revi1 views7 months agoVimeoChronostoreSee more videos of GL E36 steel EquivalentE36 / E36 Steel for shipbuildingE36 ( E36 ) Classification Steel for shipbuilding.Equivalent grades Is absent.Grade E36 ( E36 ) supplier Auremo auremo.biz.Sale Russia +7 (812) 680-16-77 ,Germany +49 (208) 376-298-00 ,info [a] auremo.Chemical composition in % for grade E36 ( E36 ) C.

Ordinary-strength GL Grade A Shipbuilding Steel - BBN Ship

Posted:2/7/2017 4:23:54 AM GL Grade A material belongs to ordinary-strength shipbuilding steel.GL Grade A shipbuilding steel plate has equivalents LR Grade A,CCS Grade A,BV Grade A,ABS,Grade A,NV Grade A,BV Grade A,and RINA Grade A.GL Grade A Shipbuilding steel plates are suitable for container and bulk cargo vessels as well as cruise ships,ferries and yachts.International Steel Grade Guide - AerosailINTERNATIONAL STEEL GRADE GUIDE Australian Grades (AS) and their nearest International Equivalent Std.Grade AS SAE US ASTM UK BS GERMAN DIN JAPAN JIS FRENCH 250 A36 4360-43A 17100/ST33 G3101-55400 /ST37-2 ST44-2,3 -5541 STRUCTURAL 350 A572GR50 A678 GRA A709 GR50 4360-50B 17100/ST52-3 G3106-SM50A NFA 35-501 /E36-2 1006 1006 970-015-A03 GL-A36,GL Grade AH36,GL AH36 STEEL PLATE__Steel SupplierGL-E36,GL Grade EH36,GL EH36 ST BBNSTEEL is specialized in supplying GL high strength steel plate in GL Grade EH36,GL-E36,GL Grade EH36,GL EH3 GL-D36,GL Grade DH36,GL DH36 ST

GL Grade GL-D GL-A GL-B GL-E GL-A32 GL-D32 GL-E32 GL-F32 GL-A36 GL-D36 GL-E36 GL-F36 GL-A40 GL-D40 GL-E40 GL-F40 DNV BV LR 1 more rows Jul 1 by admin.BBNSTEEL is specialized in supplying extra high strength steel plate in Grade E36 approved by DNV,ABS,RINA,LR,GL,BV,CCS,NK and KR.For more information of DNV Grade E36 steel plate,please check them in following:GL Grade E36 Offshore Steel Plates China Supplier steel

Equivalents to GL Grade E36 Steels ABS - American Bureau of Shipping,ABS EH36 ) LR/LRS - Lloyd's Register of Shipping,Great Britain (LR EH36 ; LRS EH36) DNV - Det Norske Veritas,Norway (NV E36) BV - Bureau Veritas,France (BV EH36) RINA - Registro Italiano Navale,Italy (RINA EH36)GL GRADE DH32 and GL-D32 steel plate supplier - Steel The max weight is 36MT/PCS.In Z test,GL DH32 Z15,GL DH32 Z25,GL DH32 Z35.Henan Gang iron and steel ,Ltd also could supply super thick steel plate which beyond nine classification society approval.GL GRADE DH32 and GL-D32 steel plate Chemical composition heat analysis

GL GRADE AH36 and GL-A36 steel plate supplier - Steel

In Z test,GL AH36 Z15,GL AH36 Z25,GL AH36 Z35.Henan Gang iron and steel ,Ltd also could supply super thick steel plate which beyond nine classification society approval.We sincerely hope old and new customers to visit our mill for a long steel business.GL GRADE AH36 and GL-A36 steel plate Chemical composition heat analysisGL GRADE AH32 and GL-A32 steel plate supplier - BBNSTEELKeywords GL-A32 Steel plate,GL Grade AH32,GL Grade AH32 steel properties,GL Grade AH32 equivalent material,GL Grade AH32 round bar,GL Grade AH32 steel density.Adopt Standard GL Gang steel grade GL Grade GL-D GL-A GL-B GL-E GL-A32 GL-D32 GL-E32 GL-F32 GL-A36 GL-D36 GL-E36 GL-F36 GL-A40 GL-D40 GL-E40 GL-F40 GL GL GL GL AH32 steel grade GL EH36,EH36,GL Grade EH36,GL-E36,EH36 steel grade Adopt Standard GL Gang steel grade:

Equivalents of Carbon Steel Qualities

Mesteel Is A B2b Portal.It Provides Steel And Construction Related Companies In The Middle East Information,News And An Extensive Interactive Database,Inclusive Offers And Inquiries.Equivalent Steel Grades - Mencinger's WebStandards/Comparison; Steel for Offshore structures Grade 355 / API 2H and 2W - Chemical Compositions Grade 355 N - Comparison of Tensile Strength,Yield Strength and ToughnessEffect of welding speed on friction stir welds of GL E36 Jan 01,2019 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;The base material used for this study was the shipbuilding steel grade GL E36 supplied with a normalized heat treatment condition.Plates of 1200 mm L GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 200 mm W GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 6 mm T were processed according to the rolling direction using butt joint configuration.The chemical composition given by the supplier is presented in Table 1.

Effect of welding speed on friction stir welds of GL E36

Jan 01,2019 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;The base material used for this study was the shipbuilding steel grade GL E36 supplied with a normalized heat treatment condition.Plates of 1200 mm L GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 200 mm W GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 6 mm T were processed according to the rolling direction using butt joint configuration.The chemical composition given by the supplier is presented in Table 1.EH36 Shipbuilding steel plate - BBN Ship SteelThe EH36 shipbuilding steel plate is the mainly kinds of steel for shipbuilding and oil platform,the shipbuilding grade EH36 can be used in the manufacture of the ship's hull structure,whose weight is more then 10000 tons.Shipbuilding grade EH36 is the high tensile strength steel,EH36 steel for shipbuilding and oil platform must be good toughness properties,higher strength,strong E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) - Worldwide equivalent gradesEuropean equivalent grade for Non-alloy quality structural steel E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) S355J0 (1.0553) Cross reference table.for Steel E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) and its European equivalent S355J2 (+N) (1.0570 (dubl)) ( EN ) EU.EN.

E36-2 (AFNOR NFA ) - Worldwide equivalent grades

Worldwide equivalents of grade E36-2 (France AFNOR NFA ) Steel E36-2.France.Standard AFNOR NF A 35-501.Cross reference table.for Steel E36-2 (AFNOR NFA ) and its European equivalent S355JR (1.0045) ( EN ) EU.EN.DNVGL-OS-B101 Metallic materialsChanges - current Offshore standards,DNVGL-OS-B101.Edition July 2017 Page 4 Metallic materials DNV GL AS Ch.2 Sec.2 [4.5.2] Test unit size for tensile and impact tests ofDNV EH36,DNV Grade EH36,EH36 steel plateDNV EH36 steel grade .Our mill could produce size in the following Thickness 6mm to 240mm,Width 1500mm to 4020mm.Length 3000mm to 27000mm.the max weight is 36MT/PCS.In Z test,GL EH32 Z15,GL EH32 Z25,GL EH32 Z35 UT test S0E1,S1E2,S2E3 and

Beverly Steel - EH 36 Shipbuilding and Offshore Structural

EH 36 Shipbuilding and Offshore Structural Steel Plate ABS EH36; AB EH36; LR EH36; GL-E36; NV E36; BV EH36; RINA EH36 Beverly Steel supplies various origins of high quality EH36 shipbuilding and temporary impotence offshore structural steel plate in South East Asia Region,with the specification ASTM A131 Part 4 and produced according to the regulations of Classification Societies listed American/Imperial Equivalents of XC38 steel and XC48 steelDec 27,2016 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;XC38,for example,only lists maximums for those alloying elements.1035 is equivalent on paper,0% is definitely less than the respective .4%,.4%,and .1% maximums.I'd check with your customer before making the substitution - that .9% in there makes the difference between a simple carbon steel,and something verging on a low-alloy tool steel.ASTM A36 Steel Properties,Modulus of Elasticity,Yield ASTM A36 Steel.ASTM A36 steel is one of the most widely used carbon structural steels,although the carbon content of A36 material is maximum 0.29%,it is considered to be the mild steel (content of carbon 0.25%)..A36 mild steel is often compared to AISI 1018,A36 carbon steel is commonly hot rolled,while 1018 steel is commonly cold rolled..Notes There are two versions that define low

AH36,DH36,EH36 High Strength Shipbuilding Steel Plate

AH36,DH36,EH36 Steel - Common Use High Strength Steel in Offshore Marine.For the high strength shipbuilding plates like AH36,DH36,EH36 steel plate,they have been widely used in high stress areas of ships,comparing with general strength steel,they areA131 E36 steel,E36 steel,steel grade E36 shipbuilding Grade E36 bebon steel are suppliers of high quality A131 E36 steel to the shipbuilding industry to specification ASTM A131..A131 E36 steel is available as heavy plates or sheets and pre-fabricated steel sections.The steel can also be pre-treated.A131 E36 steel is widely used in the shipbuilding industry both in hull construction and in the superstructure itself.12345NextVideos of GL E36 steel Equivalent Watch video on Vimeo1:55Breitling Windrider Blackbird A4436010 / BB71-379A Men's Luxury Watch Revi1 views7 months agoVimeoChronostoreSee more videos of GL E36 steel EquivalentSteel Grade Equivalency TableSteel Import / Export Statistics Steel Import / Export Statistics.Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs.If you are interested in the past and current steel trade volumes in various steel products around the globe,this section is just for you.Events Events Events .Events Events

(II-1-2) Steel and Iron Materials - DNV GL

Section 1,C.,and shall demonstrate this to GL prior to commencing supplies.This applies also for manufac-turers of semi-finished products such as ingots,slabs,blooms and billets.3.Steelmaking process 3.1 The steels are to be manufactured by the basic oxygen process,the electric furnace process or by other methods approved by GL.On

thyssenkrupp Steel Europe AG

Manufacturer(s) approved by this certificate is/are accepted to deliver according to DNV GL,DNV and GL rules.Materials to be applied to DNV GL classed object shall fulfill the material requirements in the applicable DNV GL class rules.Issued at Hamburg on 2019-10-22 This Certificate is valid until 2022-04-30.DNV GL local station Essensell GL E36 steel,GL E36 ship plate,GL E36 shipbuilding Detailed GL E36 steel Description.GL E36 SHIP plate thickness:5-120mm width:1500-4020mm length:3000-18000mm standard:9 countries certifications.GL E36 shipbuiling steelSteel grades,Properties and Global StandardsSteel and steel is introduced,including chemical composition and mechanical performance data,each steel grade property.

Steel Grade Equivalents Table Universal Steel America

Carbon Steel Grade Equivalents If you are not able to find the grade of steel you are looking for,please contact us at 281-645-0177.We would love to help you find what you are looking for.Steel Grade Equivalency TableSteel Import / Export Statistics Steel Import / Export Statistics.Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs.If you are interested in the past and current steel trade volumes in various steel products around the globe,this section is just for you.Events Events Events .Events EventsSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.

Rules for Classification and Construction I Ship - DNV GL

(Germanischer Lloyd SE has on 29 January 2014 changed its name to DNV GL SE.Any references in this Steel grade required by GL Permitted VL grade as per the DNV GL Rules for replacement of GL grade 36 GL-E36 BCA VL E36 BCA GL-E36 BCACOD VL E36 BCACOD GL-E36 COD VL E36 COD 40 GL-E40 BCA VL E40 BCA GL-E40 BCACOD VL E40 BCACOD GL-E40 COD VL Provide:VLE36/VL E36/VL Grade E36/DNVGL-E36/DNVGL E36VLE36/VL E36/VL Grade E36/DNVGL-E36/DNVGL E36-DNV-GL-E36-shipbuilding-offshore-steel-sheets|steel-plate is mainly used to Ship Project and Ocean Offshore Structural Project.Previous123456NextVideos of GL E36 steel Equivalent Watch video on Vimeo1:55Breitling Windrider Blackbird A4436010 / BB71-379A Men's Luxury Watch Revi1 views7 months agoVimeoChronostoreSee more videos of GL E36 steel EquivalentE36 / E36 Steel for shipbuildingE36 ( E36 ) Classification Steel for shipbuilding.Equivalent grades Is absent.Grade E36 ( E36 ) supplier Auremo auremo.biz.Sale Russia +7 (812) 680-16-77 ,Germany +49 (208) 376-298-00 ,info [a] auremo.Chemical composition in % for grade E36 ( E36 ) C.

Ordinary-strength GL Grade A Shipbuilding Steel - BBN Ship

Posted:2/7/2017 4:23:54 AM GL Grade A material belongs to ordinary-strength shipbuilding steel.GL Grade A shipbuilding steel plate has equivalents LR Grade A,CCS Grade A,BV Grade A,ABS,Grade A,NV Grade A,BV Grade A,and RINA Grade A.GL Grade A Shipbuilding steel plates are suitable for container and bulk cargo vessels as well as cruise ships,ferries and yachts.International Steel Grade Guide - AerosailINTERNATIONAL STEEL GRADE GUIDE Australian Grades (AS) and their nearest International Equivalent Std.Grade AS SAE US ASTM UK BS GERMAN DIN JAPAN JIS FRENCH 250 A36 4360-43A 17100/ST33 G3101-55400 /ST37-2 ST44-2,3 -5541 STRUCTURAL 350 A572GR50 A678 GRA A709 GR50 4360-50B 17100/ST52-3 G3106-SM50A NFA 35-501 /E36-2 1006 1006 970-015-A03 GL-A36,GL Grade AH36,GL AH36 STEEL PLATE__Steel SupplierGL-E36,GL Grade EH36,GL EH36 ST BBNSTEEL is specialized in supplying GL high strength steel plate in GL Grade EH36,GL-E36,GL Grade EH36,GL EH3 GL-D36,GL Grade DH36,GL DH36 ST

GL Grade GL-D GL-A GL-B GL-E GL-A32 GL-D32 GL-E32 GL-F32 GL-A36 GL-D36 GL-E36 GL-F36 GL-A40 GL-D40 GL-E40 GL-F40 DNV BV LR 1 more rows Jul 1 by admin.BBNSTEEL is specialized in supplying extra high strength steel plate in Grade E36 approved by DNV,ABS,RINA,LR,GL,BV,CCS,NK and KR.For more information of DNV Grade E36 steel plate,please check them in following:GL Grade E36 Offshore Steel Plates China Supplier steel

Equivalents to GL Grade E36 Steels ABS - American Bureau of Shipping,ABS EH36 ) LR/LRS - Lloyd's Register of Shipping,Great Britain (LR EH36 ; LRS EH36) DNV - Det Norske Veritas,Norway (NV E36) BV - Bureau Veritas,France (BV EH36) RINA - Registro Italiano Navale,Italy (RINA EH36)GL GRADE DH32 and GL-D32 steel plate supplier - Steel The max weight is 36MT/PCS.In Z test,GL DH32 Z15,GL DH32 Z25,GL DH32 Z35.Henan Gang iron and steel ,Ltd also could supply super thick steel plate which beyond nine classification society approval.GL GRADE DH32 and GL-D32 steel plate Chemical composition heat analysis

GL GRADE AH36 and GL-A36 steel plate supplier - Steel

In Z test,GL AH36 Z15,GL AH36 Z25,GL AH36 Z35.Henan Gang iron and steel ,Ltd also could supply super thick steel plate which beyond nine classification society approval.We sincerely hope old and new customers to visit our mill for a long steel business.GL GRADE AH36 and GL-A36 steel plate Chemical composition heat analysisGL GRADE AH32 and GL-A32 steel plate supplier - BBNSTEELKeywords GL-A32 Steel plate,GL Grade AH32,GL Grade AH32 steel properties,GL Grade AH32 equivalent material,GL Grade AH32 round bar,GL Grade AH32 steel density.Adopt Standard GL Gang steel grade GL Grade GL-D GL-A GL-B GL-E GL-A32 GL-D32 GL-E32 GL-F32 GL-A36 GL-D36 GL-E36 GL-F36 GL-A40 GL-D40 GL-E40 GL-F40 GL GL GL GL AH32 steel grade GL EH36,EH36,GL Grade EH36,GL-E36,EH36 steel grade Adopt Standard GL Gang steel grade:

Equivalents of Carbon Steel Qualities

Mesteel Is A B2b Portal.It Provides Steel And Construction Related Companies In The Middle East Information,News And An Extensive Interactive Database,Inclusive Offers And Inquiries.Equivalent Steel Grades - Mencinger's WebStandards/Comparison; Steel for Offshore structures Grade 355 / API 2H and 2W - Chemical Compositions Grade 355 N - Comparison of Tensile Strength,Yield Strength and ToughnessEffect of welding speed on friction stir welds of GL E36 Jan 01,2019 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;The base material used for this study was the shipbuilding steel grade GL E36 supplied with a normalized heat treatment condition.Plates of 1200 mm L GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 200 mm W GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 6 mm T were processed according to the rolling direction using butt joint configuration.The chemical composition given by the supplier is presented in Table 1.

Effect of welding speed on friction stir welds of GL E36

Jan 01,2019 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;The base material used for this study was the shipbuilding steel grade GL E36 supplied with a normalized heat treatment condition.Plates of 1200 mm L GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 200 mm W GL E36 steel Equivalent#215; 6 mm T were processed according to the rolling direction using butt joint configuration.The chemical composition given by the supplier is presented in Table 1.EH36 Shipbuilding steel plate - BBN Ship SteelThe EH36 shipbuilding steel plate is the mainly kinds of steel for shipbuilding and oil platform,the shipbuilding grade EH36 can be used in the manufacture of the ship's hull structure,whose weight is more then 10000 tons.Shipbuilding grade EH36 is the high tensile strength steel,EH36 steel for shipbuilding and oil platform must be good toughness properties,higher strength,strong E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) - Worldwide equivalent gradesEuropean equivalent grade for Non-alloy quality structural steel E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) S355J0 (1.0553) Cross reference table.for Steel E36-3 (AFNOR NFA ) and its European equivalent S355J2 (+N) (1.0570 (dubl)) ( EN ) EU.EN.

E36-2 (AFNOR NFA ) - Worldwide equivalent grades

Worldwide equivalents of grade E36-2 (France AFNOR NFA ) Steel E36-2.France.Standard AFNOR NF A 35-501.Cross reference table.for Steel E36-2 (AFNOR NFA ) and its European equivalent S355JR (1.0045) ( EN ) EU.EN.DNVGL-OS-B101 Metallic materialsChanges - current Offshore standards,DNVGL-OS-B101.Edition July 2017 Page 4 Metallic materials DNV GL AS Ch.2 Sec.2 [4.5.2] Test unit size for tensile and impact tests ofDNV EH36,DNV Grade EH36,EH36 steel plateDNV EH36 steel grade .Our mill could produce size in the following Thickness 6mm to 240mm,Width 1500mm to 4020mm.Length 3000mm to 27000mm.the max weight is 36MT/PCS.In Z test,GL EH32 Z15,GL EH32 Z25,GL EH32 Z35 UT test S0E1,S1E2,S2E3 and

Beverly Steel - EH 36 Shipbuilding and Offshore Structural

EH 36 Shipbuilding and Offshore Structural Steel Plate ABS EH36; AB EH36; LR EH36; GL-E36; NV E36; BV EH36; RINA EH36 Beverly Steel supplies various origins of high quality EH36 shipbuilding and temporary impotence offshore structural steel plate in South East Asia Region,with the specification ASTM A131 Part 4 and produced according to the regulations of Classification Societies listed American/Imperial Equivalents of XC38 steel and XC48 steelDec 27,2016 GL E36 steel Equivalent#0183;XC38,for example,only lists maximums for those alloying elements.1035 is equivalent on paper,0% is definitely less than the respective .4%,.4%,and .1% maximums.I'd check with your customer before making the substitution - that .9% in there makes the difference between a simple carbon steel,and something verging on a low-alloy tool steel.ASTM A36 Steel Properties,Modulus of Elasticity,Yield ASTM A36 Steel.ASTM A36 steel is one of the most widely used carbon structural steels,although the carbon content of A36 material is maximum 0.29%,it is considered to be the mild steel (content of carbon 0.25%)..A36 mild steel is often compared to AISI 1018,A36 carbon steel is commonly hot rolled,while 1018 steel is commonly cold rolled..Notes There are two versions that define low

AH36,DH36,EH36 High Strength Shipbuilding Steel Plate

AH36,DH36,EH36 Steel - Common Use High Strength Steel in Offshore Marine.For the high strength shipbuilding plates like AH36,DH36,EH36 steel plate,they have been widely used in high stress areas of ships,comparing with general strength steel,they areA131 E36 steel,E36 steel,steel grade E36 shipbuilding Grade E36 bebon steel are suppliers of high quality A131 E36 steel to the shipbuilding industry to specification ASTM A131..A131 E36 steel is available as heavy plates or sheets and pre-fabricated steel sections.The steel can also be pre-treated.A131 E36 steel is widely used in the shipbuilding industry both in hull construction and in the superstructure itself.12345NextVideos of GL E36 steel Equivalent Watch video on Vimeo1:55Breitling Windrider Blackbird A4436010 / BB71-379A Men's Luxury Watch Revi1 views7 months agoVimeoChronostoreSee more videos of GL E36 steel EquivalentSteel Grade Equivalency TableSteel Import / Export Statistics Steel Import / Export Statistics.Steel Trade Graphs Steel Trade Graphs.If you are interested in the past and current steel trade volumes in various steel products around the globe,this section is just for you.Events Events Events .Events Events

(II-1-2) Steel and Iron Materials - DNV GL

Section 1,C.,and shall demonstrate this to GL prior to commencing supplies.This applies also for manufac-turers of semi-finished products such as ingots,slabs,blooms and billets.3.Steelmaking process 3.1 The steels are to be manufactured by the basic oxygen process,the electric furnace process or by other methods approved by GL.On

Get In Touch

We receive enquiries in English, Español (Spanish). Our professional team will reply to you within one business day. Please feel FREE to contact us!

Top